One of the banks favorite dirty tricks is called Dual Tracking! Dual Tracking is when a lender or loan servicer pretends to be working on a loan modification application, while they secretly and simultaneously move forward with a foreclosure action behind your back! Dual Tracking is against the law, but lenders and loan servicers do it all the time. Watch this true life story of one of the worst cases of Dual Tracking we have ever seen so you know what to look out for:
Ocwen Loses to Homeowner over Dual Tracking
Plaintiffs filed suit against Ocwen after their lender’s purchase of their residence at a nonjudicial foreclosure sale, alleging that Ocwen violated Civil Code section 2923.6, the prohibition on “dual tracking” contained in the Homeowners Bill of Rights, when it conducted a foreclosure sale of plaintiffs’ property while their loan modification application was pending.
The trial court sustained Ocwen’s demurrer. However, the court concluded that by alleging the submission of the loan modification application three days after receipt of the Offer Letter, and the transmittal of the additional documents requested by Ocwen on the date of request, plaintiffs have sufficiently alleged that a complete loan modification application was pending at the time Ocwen foreclosed on their home in violation of section 2923.6. Accordingly, the court reversed the judgment of the trial court. You can download and read the entire case at https://www.fraudstoppers.org/wp-content/uploads/2015-b256378.pdf
Laws Prohibiting Dual Tracking in the Foreclosure Context
Laws prohibit mortgage servicers from foreclosing on your home while considering your loan modification application.
By Amy Loftsgordon, Attorney
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Dual tracking occurs when a mortgage servicer—the company that handles your loan account—continues to foreclose on a homeowner’s home while simultaneously considering the homeowner’s application for a loan modification or other foreclosure avoidance option. In the past, dual tracking was common. Now though, federal law mortgage servicing laws, as well as various state laws, offer some protection to homeowners in this situation.
Federal laws, which became effective January 10, 2014, strictly limit the ability of mortgage servicers to foreclose on a borrower while also working out a loan modification or other alternative to foreclosure. Some states have also enacted similar restrictions.
Read on to learn more about laws that restrict dual tracking.
Dual Tracking and Foreclosures
During the mortgage crisis, it was typical for mortgage servicers to advance a foreclosure while telling the homeowner he or she was in the running for a loan modification or other mortgage workout option. In most cases, the homeowner would end up with whichever one was completed first—usually a foreclosure. Because of this practice, called dual tracking, many homeowners who were sure that a loan modification was forthcoming were shocked to ultimately lose their homes to foreclosure.
Laws That Restrict Dual Tracking
In response to this issue, federal law restricts mortgage servicers from continuing the foreclosure process if the homeowner is working on securing a loan modification or other alternative to foreclosure. Some states have this type of law as well. Under these laws, when you submit a complete application for a “loss mitigation” (foreclosure avoidance) option, the foreclosure process generally must be halted until the application has been fully reviewed.
Federal Law Restricts Dual Tracking
The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, which was established by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010, issued mortgage servicing rules that, after being codified into federal law, went into effect as of January 10, 2014. Among other things, the rules restrict dual tracking.
Under the law, a mortgage servicer cannot initiate a foreclosure in most cases until you’re more than 120 days delinquent on the mortgage obligation, which provides a reasonable amount of time to submit a loss mitigation application.
Also, the servicer cannot start the foreclosure process if a borrower submits a complete loss mitigation application and the application is pending. This means that if you submit all of the required paperwork, the foreclosure can’t start until:
- the servicer informs you that you are not eligible for any loss mitigation option (and any appeal you make has been exhausted)
- you reject the workout option that the servicer offers to you, or
- you accept a workout, but fail to comply with the terms of the deal (such as not making payments during a trial modification).
If you submit a complete loss mitigation application to your mortgage servicer after the foreclosure has started, but more than 37 days before a foreclosure sale, the servicer must stop the foreclosure process until one of the three events described above happens. (Find out more about the federal mortgage servicing rules in Nolo’s article Federal Rules Protecting Homeowners With Mortgages and at the CFBP website.)
California, Nevada, and Minnesota Law Prohibits Dual Tracking
California, Nevada, and Minnesota have each passed a Homeowner Bill of Rights that prohibits the dual tracking of foreclosures. This means that, under state law, mortgage servicers must either grant or deny a first-lien loss mitigation application before beginning or continuing the foreclosure process. Even if the lender denies the loan modification, it still cannot foreclose until any applicable appeals period has expired. (Learn more about the California, Nevada, and Minnesota Homeowner Bill of Rights.)
A few months after California passed it’s Homeowner Bill of Rights, a homeowner who had submitted a complete loan modification application successfully used the law to get a preliminary injunction to stop the foreclosure sale in the case of Singh v. Bank of America, 2013 WL 1858436 (E.D. Cal. May 1, 2013). In this case, the servicer never informed the homeowner of its decision regarding the homeowner’s loan modification application before proceeding with the foreclosure. Eventually, the parties settled and the case closed.
Colorado Also Passed a Law Prohibiting Dual Tracking
In Colorado, House Bill 14-1295 (which went into effect January 1, 2015) gives the public trustee (the party that administers Colorado foreclosures) the power to stop a foreclosure sale from occurring when a homeowner is in the process of applying for an alternative to foreclosure or the homeowner has accepted—and is in compliance with—a loss mitigation option, such as a loan modification. (Learn more in Nolo’s article Colorado Law Helps Homeowners in Foreclosure.)
Clarifying servicers’ obligations to avoid dual-tracking and prevent wrongful foreclosures: The CFPB’s existing rules prohibit servicers from taking certain actions in foreclosure once they receive a complete loss mitigation application from a borrower more than 37 days prior to a scheduled sale. However, in some cases, borrowers are not receiving this protection, and servicers’ foreclosure counsel may not be taking adequate steps to delay foreclosure proceedings or sales. The CFPB’s new rule clarifies that, if a servicer has already made the first foreclosure notice or filing and receives a timely complete application, servicers and their foreclosure counsel must not move for a foreclosure judgment or order of sale, or conduct a foreclosure sale, even if a third party conducts the sale proceedings, unless the borrower’s loss mitigation application is properly denied, withdrawn, or the borrower fails to perform on a loss mitigation agreement. The clarifications will aid servicers in complying with, and assist courts in applying, the dual-tracking prohibitions in foreclosure proceedings to prevent wrongful foreclosures.
the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) issued rules to establish new, strong protections for struggling homeowners facing foreclosure. The rules also protect mortgage borrowers from costly surprises and runarounds by their servicers.
“For many borrowers, dealing with mortgage servicers has meant unwelcome surprises and constantly getting the runaround. In too many cases, it has led to unnecessary foreclosures,” said CFPB Director Richard Cordray. “Our rules ensure fair treatment for all borrowers and establish strong protections for those struggling to save their homes.”
Mortgage servicers are responsible for collecting payments from mortgage borrowers on behalf of loan owners. They also typically handle customer service, escrow accounts, collections, loan modifications, and foreclosures. Generally, borrowers have no say in choosing their mortgage servicers. Lenders frequently sell loans to investors after the mortgage deal is signed, and the investors, not the consumers, often choose the servicers.
Even before the financial crisis, the mortgage servicing industry at times experienced problems with bad practices and sloppy recordkeeping. As millions of borrowers fell behind on their loans as a result of the crisis, many servicers were unable to provide the level of service necessary to meet homeowners’ needs. Many simply had not made the investments in resources and infrastructure to service large numbers of delinquent loans. Consumers complained about getting the runaround and being hit with costly surprises. Now, with millions of homeowners in distress, many borrowers are continuing to experience serious problems seeking loan modifications or other alternatives to avoid foreclosure.
Strong Protections for Struggling Borrowers
The CFPB’s mortgage servicing rules ensure that borrowers in trouble get a fair process to avoid foreclosure. Borrowers shouldn’t have to worry about mortgage servicers cutting corners or losing applications for relief. They should be told about their options and given time to apply and be considered for loan modifications and other alternatives. Most of all, they shouldn’t be surprised by the start of a foreclosure proceeding until they have had time to explore all available options. If they act diligently to seek alternatives, they should not face a foreclosure sale before their applications have been evaluated. The new protections for struggling borrowers include:
- Restricted Dual-Tracking:Under the CFPB’s new rules, dual-tracking – when the servicer moves forward with foreclosure while simultaneously working with the borrower to avoid foreclosure – is restricted. Servicers cannot start a foreclosure proceeding if a borrower has already submitted a complete application for a loan modification or other alternative to foreclosure, and that application is still pending review. To give borrowers reasonable time to submit such applications, servicers cannot make the first notice or filing required for the foreclosure process until a mortgage loan account is more than 120 days delinquent.
- Notification of Foreclosure Alternatives:Servicers must let borrowers know about their “loss mitigation options” to retain their home after borrowers have missed two consecutive payments. They must provide them a written notice that includes examples of options that might be available to them as alternatives to foreclosure and instructions for how to obtain more information.
- Direct and Ongoing Access to Servicing Personnel:Servicers must have policies and procedures in place to provide delinquent borrowers with direct, easy, ongoing access to employees responsible for helping them. These personnel are responsible for alerting borrowers to any missing information on their applications, telling borrowers about the status of any loss mitigation application, and making sure documents get to the right servicing personnel for processing.
- Fair Review Process:The servicer must consider all foreclosure alternatives available from the mortgage owners or investors – those with decision-making power over the loan – to help the borrower retain the home. These options can range from deferment of payments to loan modifications. And servicers can no longer steer borrowers to those options that are most financially favorable for the servicer.
- No Foreclosure Sale Until All Other Alternatives Considered:Servicers must consider and respond to a borrower’s application for a loan modification if it arrives at least 37 days before a scheduled foreclosure sale. If the servicer offers an alternative to foreclosure, they must give the borrower time to accept the offer before moving for foreclosure judgment or conducting a foreclosure sale. Servicers cannot foreclose on a property if the borrower and servicer have come to a loss mitigation agreement, unless the borrower fails to perform under that agreement.
Mortgage borrowers should not be surprised about where their money is going, when interest rates adjust, or when they get charged fees. The CFPB’s rules help every borrower, whether struggling or not, by bringing greater transparency to the market with clear and timely information about mortgages. These rules include:
- Clear Monthly Mortgage Statements:Servicers must provide regular statements which include: the amount and due date of the next payment; a breakdown of payments by principal, interest, fees, and escrow; and recent transaction activity.
- Early Warning Before Interest Rate Adjusts:Servicers must provide a disclosure before the first time the interest rate adjusts for most adjustable-rate mortgages. And they must provide disclosures before interest rate adjustments that result in a different payment amount.
- Options for Avoiding Costly “Force-Placed” Insurance:Servicers typically must make sure borrowers maintain property insurance and if the borrower does not, the servicer generally has the right to purchase it. The CFPB’s rules ensure consumers will not be surprised by this insurance, which often can be more expensive than the insurance borrowers buy on their own. The rules say servicers must provide more transparency in this process, including advance notice and pricing information before charging consumers. Servicers must also have a reasonable basis for concluding that a borrower lacks such insurance before purchasing a new policy. If servicers buy the insurance but receive evidence that it was not needed, they must terminate it within fifteen days and refund the premiums.
When mortgage servicers make mistakes, records get lost, payments are processed too slowly, or servicer personnel do not have the latest information about a consumer’s account, the consumer suffers the consequences. The CFPB’s rules will require common-sense policies and procedures for handling consumer accounts and preventing runarounds. These rules include:
- Payments Promptly Credited:Servicers must credit a consumer’s account the date a payment is received. If the servicer places partial payments in a “suspense account,” once the amount in such an account equals a full payment, the servicer must credit it to the borrower’s account.
- Prompt Response to Requests for Payoff Balances:Servicers must generally provide a response to consumer requests for the payoff balances of their mortgage loans within seven business days of receiving a written request.
- Errors Corrected and Information Provided Quickly:Servicers must generally acknowledge receipt of written notices from consumers regarding certain errors or requesting information about their mortgage loans. Generally, within 30 days, the servicer must: correct the error and provide the information requested; conduct a reasonable investigation and inform the borrower why the error did not occur; or inform the borrower that the information requested is unavailable.
- Maintain Accurate and Accessible Documents and Information:Servicers must store borrower information in a way that allows it to be easily accessible. Servicers must also have policies and procedures in place to ensure that they can provide timely and accurate information to borrowers, investors, and in any foreclosure proceeding, the courts.
Today’s rules originate from the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, which directed the CFPB to implement reforms for the mortgage servicing industry. The CFPB announced in August that it was considering a number of proposals to implement the Dodd-Frank Act requirements and address systemic problems in the industry. Today’s rules are a result of the public’s feedback on those proposals.
Recognizing that small servicers approach servicing quite differently, the CFPB made certain exemptions to today’s mortgage servicing rules for small servicers that service 5,000 or fewer mortgage loans that they or an affiliate either own or originated. These servicers are mostly community banks and credit unions servicing mortgages for their customers or members.
The mortgage servicing rules take effect in January 2014. The CFPB plans to work with mortgage servicers to ensure an easy transition to implementation. To help with compliance, the CFPB will, among other things, be issuing plain language implementation guides and, in coordination with other agencies, releasing materials that help servicers understand supervisory expectations. For many of the new rules that require specific notifications, the rule contains model and sample forms. As the effective date approaches, the CFPB will also give consumers information about their new rights under these rules.
The mortgage servicing rules can be found at:www.consumerfinance.gov/regulations
12 CFR 1024.41 – Loss mitigation procedures.
- 1024.41 Loss mitigation procedures.
(a)Enforcement and limitations. A borrower may enforce the provisions of this section pursuant to section 6(f) of RESPA ( 12 U.S.C. 2605(f)). Nothing in § 1024.41 imposes a duty on a servicer to provide any borrower with any specific loss mitigation option. Nothing in § 1024.41 should be construed to create a right for a borrower to enforce the terms of any agreement between a servicer and the owner or assignee of a mortgage loan, including with respect to the evaluation for, or offer of, any loss mitigation option or to eliminate any such right that may exist pursuant to applicable law.
(b)Receipt of a loss mitigation application –
(1)Complete loss mitigation application. A complete loss mitigation application means an application in connection with which a servicer has received all the information that theservicer requires from a borrower in evaluating applications for the loss mitigation optionsavailable to the borrower. A servicer shall exercise reasonable diligence in obtaining documents and information to complete a loss mitigation application.
(2)Review of loss mitigation application submission –
(B) Notify the borrower in writing within 5 days (excluding legal public holi days, Satur days, and Sun days) after receiving the loss mitigation application that the serviceracknowledges receipt of the loss mitigation application and that the servicer has determined that the loss mitigation application is either complete or incomplete. If aloss mitigation application is incomplete, the notice shall state the additional documents and information the borrower must submit to make the loss mitigation applicationcomplete and the applicable date pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. The notice to the borrower shall include a statement that the borrower should consider contacting servicers of any other mortgage loans secured by the same property to discuss available loss mitigation options.
(ii)Time period disclosure. The notice required pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section must include a reasonable date by which the borrower should submit the documents and information necessary to make the loss mitigation application complete.
(3)Determining protections. To the extent a determination of whether protections under this section apply to a borrower is made on the basis of the number of days between when a complete loss mitigation application is received and when a foreclosure sale occurs, such determination shall be made as of the date a complete loss mitigation application is received.
(c)Evaluation of loss mitigation applications –
(1)Complete loss mitigation application. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section, if a servicer receives a complete loss mitigation application more than 37 daysbefore a foreclosure sale, then, within 30 days of receiving the complete loss mitigation application, a servicer shall:
(i) Evaluate the borrower for all loss mitigation options available to the borrower; and
(ii) Provide the borrower with a notice in writing stating the servicer‘s determination of which loss mitigation options, if any, it will offer to the borrower on behalf of the owner or assignee of the mortgage. The servicer shall include in this notice the amount of time the borrower has to accept or reject an offer of a loss mitigation program as provided for inparagraph (e) of this section, if applicable, and a notification, if applicable, that the borrower has the right to appeal the denial of any loan modification option as well as the amount of time the borrower has to file such an appeal and any requirements for making an appeal, as provided for in paragraph (h) of this section.
(2)Incomplete loss mitigation application evaluation –
(i)In general. Except as set forth in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, aservicer shall not evade the requirement to evaluate a complete loss mitigation application for all loss mitigation options available to the borrower by offering a loss mitigation option based upon an evaluation of any information provided by a borrower in connection with an incomplete loss mitigation application.
(ii)Reasonable time. Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, if a servicerhas exercised reasonable diligence in obtaining documents and information to complete aloss mitigation application, but a loss mitigation application remains incomplete for a significant period of time under the circumstances without further progress by a borrower to make the loss mitigation application complete, a servicer may, in its discretion, evaluate an incomplete loss mitigation application and offer a borrower a loss mitigation option. Any such evaluation and offer is not subject to the requirements of this section and shall not constitute an evaluation of a single complete loss mitigation application for purposes of paragraph (i) of this section.
(iii)Short-term loss mitigation options. Notwithstanding paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, a servicer may offer a short-term payment forbearance program or a short-term repayment plan to a borrower based upon an evaluation of an incomplete loss mitigation application. Promptly after offering a payment forbearance program or a repayment plan under this paragraph (c)(2)(iii), unless the borrower has rejected the offer, the servicermust provide the borrower a written notice stating the specific payment terms and duration of the program or plan, that the servicer offered the program or plan based on an evaluation of an incomplete application, that other loss mitigation options may be available, and that the borrower has the option to submit a complete loss mitigation application to receive an evaluation for all loss mitigation options available to the borrower regardless of whether the borrower accepts the program or plan. A servicershall not make the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process, and shall not move for foreclosure judgment or order of sale or conduct a foreclosure sale, if a borrower is performing pursuant to the terms of a payment forbearance program or repayment plan offered pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2)(iii). A servicer may offer a short-term payment forbearance program in conjunction with a short-term repayment plan pursuant to this paragraph (c)(2)(iii).
(iv)Facially complete application. A loss mitigation application shall be considered facially complete when a borrower submits all the missing documents and information asstated in the notice required under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section, when no additional information is requested in such notice, or once the servicer is required to provide the borrower a written notice pursuant to paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. If the servicer later discovers that additional information or corrections to a previously submitted document are required to complete the application, the servicer must promptly request the missing information or corrected documents and treat the application as complete for the purposes of paragraphs (f)(2) and (g) of this section until the borrower is given a reasonable opportunity to complete the application. If the borrower completes the application within this period, the application shall be considered complete as of the date it first became facially complete, for the purposes of paragraphs (d), (e), (f)(2), (g), and (h) of this section, and as of the date the application was actually complete for the purposes of this paragraph (c). A servicer that complies with this paragraph (c)(2)(iv) will be deemed to have fulfilled its obligation to provide an accurate notice under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section.
(3)Notice of complete application.
(i) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, within 5 days (excluding legal public holi days, Satur days, and Sun days) after receiving a borrower’s completeloss mitigation application, a servicer shall provide the borrower a written notice that sets forth the following information:
(A) That the loss mitigation application is complete;
(1) If the servicer has not made the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process, that the servicer cannot make the first notice or filing required to commence or initiate the foreclosure process under applicable law before evaluating the borrower’s complete application; or
(2) If the servicer has made the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process, that the servicer has begun the foreclosure process, and that the servicer cannot conduct a foreclosure sale before evaluating the borrower’s complete application;
(E) That the servicer may need additional information at a later date to evaluate theapplication, in which case the servicer will request that information from the borrower and give the borrower a reasonable opportunity to submit it, the evaluation process may take longer, and the foreclosure protections could end if the servicer does not receive the information as requested; and
(F) That the borrower may be entitled to additional protections under State or Federal law.
(A) The servicer has already provided the borrower a notice under paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section informing the borrower that the application is complete and theservicer has not subsequently requested additional information or a corrected version of a previously submitted document from the borrower pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(iv)of this section;
(4)Information not in the borrower’s control –
(i)Reasonable diligence. If a servicer requires documents or information not in the borrower’s control to determine which loss mitigation options, if any, it will offer to the borrower, the servicer must exercise reasonable diligence in obtaining such documents or information.
(ii)Effect in case of delay. (A)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(A)(2) of this section, a servicer must not deny a complete loss mitigation application solely because the servicer lacks required documents or information not in the borrower’scontrol.
(2) If a servicer has exercised reasonable diligence to obtain required documents or information from a party other than the borrower or the servicer, but the servicer has been unable to obtain such documents or information for a significant period of time following the 30-day period identified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, and theservicer, in accordance with applicable requirements established by the owner or assignee of the borrower’s mortgage loan, is unable to determine which loss mitigation options, if any, it will offer the borrower without such documents or information, the servicer may deny the application and provide the borrower with a written notice in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. When providing the written notice in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section, the servicermust also provide the borrower with a copy of the written notice required byparagraph (c)(4)(ii)(B) of this section.
(B) If a servicer is unable to make a determination within the 30-day period identified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section as to which loss mitigation options, if any, it will offer to the borrower because the servicer lacks required documents or information from a party other than the borrower or the servicer, the servicer must, within such 30-day period or promptly thereafter, provide the borrower a written notice, informing the borrower:
(1) That the servicer has not received documents or information not in the borrower’s control that the servicer requires to determine which loss mitigation options, if any, it will offer to the borrower on behalf of the owner or assignee of the mortgage;
(2) Of the specific documents or information that the servicer lacks;
(3) That the servicer has requested such documents or information; and
(C) If a servicer must provide a notice required by paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(B) of this section, the servicer must not provide the borrower a written notice pursuant toparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section until the servicer receives the required documents or information referenced in paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(B)(2) of this section, except as provided in paragraph (c)(4)(ii)(A)(2) of this section. Upon receiving such required documents or information, the servicer must promptly provide the borrower with the written notice pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.
(d)Denial of loan modification options. If a borrower’s complete loss mitigation application is denied for any trial or permanent loan modification option available to the borrower pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, a servicer shall state in the notice sent to the borrower pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section the specific reason or reasons for the servicer‘s determination for each such trial or permanent loan modification option and, if applicable, that the borrower was not evaluated on other criteria.
(e)Borrower response –
(1)In general. Subject to paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, if a complete loss mitigation application is received 90 days or more before a foreclosure sale, a servicer may require that a borrower accept or reject an offer of a loss mitigation option no earlier than 14 days after the servicer provides the offer of a loss mitigation option to the borrower. If a complete loss mitigation application is received less than 90 days before a foreclosure sale, but more than 37 days before a foreclosure sale, a servicer may require that a borrower accept or reject an offer of a loss mitigation option no earlier than 7 days after the servicerprovides the offer of a loss mitigation option to the borrower.
(i)In general. Except as set forth in paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, aservicer may deem a borrower that has not accepted an offer of a loss mitigation optionwithin the deadline established pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) of this section to have rejected the offer of a loss mitigation option.
(ii)Trial Loan Modification Plan. A borrower who does not satisfy the servicer‘s requirements for accepting a trial loan modification plan, but submits the payments that would be owed pursuant to any such plan within the deadline established pursuant toparagraph (e)(1) of this section, shall be provided a reasonable period of time to fulfill any remaining requirements of the servicer for acceptance of the trial loan modification plan beyond the deadline established pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) of this section.
(iii)Interaction with appeal process. If a borrower makes an appeal pursuant toparagraph (h) of this section, the borrower’s deadline for accepting a loss mitigation option offered pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section shall be extended until 14days after the servicer provides the notice required pursuant to paragraph (h)(4) of this section.
(f)Prohibition on foreclosure referral –
(1)Pre-foreclosure review period. A servicer shall not make the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process unless:
(ii) The foreclosure is based on a borrower’s violation of a due-on-sale clause; or
(iii) The servicer is joining the foreclosure action of a superior or subordinate lienholder.
(2)Application received before foreclosure referral. If a borrower submits a completeloss mitigation application during the pre-foreclosure review period set forth in paragraph (f)(1) of this section or before a servicer has made the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process, a servicer shall not make the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process unless:
(i) The servicer has sent the borrower a notice pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section that the borrower is not eligible for any loss mitigation option and the appeal process in paragraph (h) of this section is not applicable, the borrower has not requested an appeal within the applicable time period for requesting an appeal, or the borrower’s appeal has been denied;
(iii) The borrower fails to perform under an agreement on a loss mitigation option.
(g)Prohibition on foreclosure sale. If a borrower submits a complete loss mitigation application after a servicer has made the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process but more than 37 days before a foreclosure sale, a servicer shall not move for foreclosure judgment or order of sale, or conduct a foreclosure sale, unless:
(1) The servicer has sent the borrower a notice pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section that the borrower is not eligible for any loss mitigation option and the appeal process in paragraph (h) of this section is not applicable, the borrower has not requested an appeal within the applicable time period for requesting an appeal, or the borrower’s appeal has been denied;
(3) The borrower fails to perform under an agreement on a loss mitigation option.
(h)Appeal process –
(1)Appeal process required for loan modification denials. If a servicer receives a complete loss mitigation application 90 days or more before a foreclosure sale or during the period set forth in paragraph (f) of this section, a servicer shall permit a borrower to appeal the servicer‘s determination to deny a borrower’s loss mitigation application for any trial or permanent loan modification program available to the borrower.
(2)Deadlines. A servicer shall permit a borrower to make an appeal within 14 days after the servicer provides the offer of a loss mitigation option to the borrower pursuant toparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.
(4)Appeal determination. Within 30 days of a borrower making an appeal, the servicershall provide a notice to the borrower stating the servicer‘s determination of whether theservicer will offer the borrower a loss mitigation option based upon the appeal and, if applicable, how long the borrower has to accept or reject such an offer or a prior offer of aloss mitigation option. A servicer may require that a borrower accept or reject an offer of aloss mitigation option after an appeal no earlier than 14 days after the servicer provides the notice to a borrower. A servicer‘s determination under this paragraph is not subject to any further appeal.
(i)Duplicative requests. A servicer must comply with the requirements of this section for a borrower’s loss mitigation application, unless the servicer has previously complied with the requirements of this section for a complete loss mitigation application submitted by the borrower and the borrower has been delinquent at all times since submitting the prior complete application.
(j)Small servicer requirements. A small servicer shall be subject to the prohibition on foreclosure referral in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. A small servicer shall not make the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process and shall not move for foreclosure judgment or order of sale, or conduct a foreclosure sale, if a borrower is performing pursuant to the terms of an agreement on a loss mitigation option.
(k)Servicing transfers –
(1)In general –
(i)Timing of compliance. Except as provided in paragraphs (k)(2) through (4) of this section, if a transferee servicer acquires the servicing of a mortgage loan for which a loss mitigation application is pending as of the transfer date, the transferee servicer must comply with the requirements of this section for that loss mitigation application within the timeframes that were applicable to the transferor servicer based on the date thetransferor servicer received the loss mitigation application. All rights and protections under paragraphs (c) through (h) of this section to which a borrower was entitled before a transfer continue to apply notwithstanding the transfer.
(ii)Transfer date defined. For purposes of this paragraph (k), the transfer date is the date on which the transferee servicer will begin accepting payments relating to themortgage loan, as disclosed on the notice of transfer of loan servicing pursuant to § 1024.33(b)(4)(iv).
(2)Acknowledgment notices –
(i)Transferee servicer timeframes. If a transferee servicer acquires the servicing of amortgage loan for which the period to provide the notice required by paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B) of this section has not expired as of the transfer date and the transferor servicer has not provided such notice, the transferee servicer must provide the notice within 10 days(excluding legal public holi days, Satur days, and Sun days) of the transfer date.
(A) Shall not make the first notice or filing required by applicable law for any judicial or non-judicial foreclosure process until a date that is after the reasonable date disclosed to the borrower pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, notwithstandingparagraph (f)(1) of this section. For purposes of paragraph (f)(2) of this section, a borrower who submits a complete loss mitigation application on or before the reasonable date disclosed to the borrower pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section shall be treated as having done so during the pre-foreclosure review period set forth in paragraph (f)(1) of this section.
(B) Shall comply with paragraphs (c), (d), and (g) of this section if the borrower submits a complete loss mitigation application to the transferee or transferor servicer37 or fewer days before the foreclosure sale but on or before the reasonable date disclosed to the borrower pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section.
(3)Complete loss mitigation applications pending at transfer. If a transferee servicer acquires the servicing of a mortgage loan for which a complete loss mitigation application is pending as of the transfer date, the transferee servicer must comply with the applicable requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) and (4) of this section within 30 days of the transfer date.
(4)Applications subject to appeal process. If a transferee servicer acquires theservicing of a mortgage loan for which an appeal of a transferor servicer‘s determination pursuant to paragraph (h) of this section has not been resolved by the transferor serviceras of the transfer date or is timely filed after the transfer date, the transferee servicer must make a determination on the appeal if it is able to do so or, if it is unable to do so, must treat the appeal as a pending complete loss mitigation application.
(i)Determining appeal. If a transferee servicer is required under this paragraph (k)(4) to make a determination on an appeal, the transferee servicer must complete the determination and provide the notice required by paragraph (h)(4) of this section within 30 days of the transfer date or 30 days of the date the borrower made the appeal, whichever is later.
(ii)Servicer unable to determine appeal. A transferee servicer that is required to treat a borrower’s appeal as a pending complete loss mitigation application under this paragraph (k)(4) must comply with the requirements of this section for such application, including evaluating the borrower for all loss mitigation options available to the borrower from the transferee servicer. For purposes of paragraph (c) or (k)(3) of this section, as applicable, such a pending complete loss mitigation application shall be considered complete as of the date the appeal was received by the transferor servicer or thetransferee servicer, whichever occurs first. For purposes of paragraphs (e) through (h) of this section, the transferee servicer must treat such a pending complete loss mitigation application as facially complete under paragraph (c)(2)(iv) as of the date it was first facially complete or complete, as applicable, with respect to the transferor servicer.
(5)Pending loss mitigation offers. A transfer does not affect a borrower’s ability to accept or reject a loss mitigation option offered under paragraph (c) or (h) of this section. If a transferee servicer acquires the servicing of a mortgage loan for which the borrower’s time period under paragraph (e) or (h) of this section for accepting or rejecting a loss mitigation option offered by the transferor servicer has not expired as of the transfer date, the transferee servicer must allow the borrower to accept or reject the offer during the unexpired balance of the applicable time period.
Why You Should Never Make an Admission to a Contract of Indebtedness
We understand the operating documents of the Pooling and Servicing Agreement and if the security evidence by the mortgage security instrument, conveyed with the tangible note negotiation, before the cut off data of the REMIC.
We are absolutely familiar with how you would sit down and break down a true sale from party A from party B to convey the security and to maintain the fiduciary duty under the Common Law Deed of Trust to release and reconvey, release and reconvey, to maintain clear and marketable title.
So, we know the foundation under the UCC for that.
Then, we also understand the underlying arguments that the banks and their attorneys use against people making securitization foreclosure defense arguments, which may have done a proper statement of fact as to what’s required to accomplish a true sale between all these parties and maintain perfection over the lien.
However the banks and their attorneys are going to succeed by not having a Chain of Title, by stating that they negotiated the note in Bearer Form under Article UCC 3205 Sub section B with no payee named as a bearer instrument.
This essentially gives them a purported temporary perfection of the original holder, while they physically transfer the instrument, by daisy chain, which doesn't require for them to maintain a Chain of Title, until the instrument is specially endorsed.
This is how the banks and their attorneys beat almost everybody from New York to California on standing, and whether or not they had a secured interest over the lien; because nobody has a the way to argue against whether or not they made the instrument of bearer paper and physically negotiated it, because they weren’t required to maintain a Chain of Title in that aspect.
So that’s how the banks and their attorneys are able to win nine times out of ten. Because what they're saying is that in the negotiation under 3205 B, the security followed the note, whenever the custodian of record received the instrument prior to the cut-off date, making the note and the security securing trust property before the cut-off date.
That's how the banks and their attorneys are able to beat you.
So let’s reverse engineer this, let's take that note all the way back to the closing, and reverse the whole concept and transaction.
What you have to be able to show is that you have one purported transaction, concealing the realistic transaction.
Did the lien’s beneficial interest maintain perfection, and was it therefore eligible to be negotiated with the note in that capacity, as statutorily required?
However what that would require that you were the actual creditor and that you actually made that note as a maker issuer, for the purposes of being the beneficiary of the debt that was created.
This is what the banks and their attorneys want you to believe in the matter of equity:
- That your signature was as a maker issuer and therefore created value to the instrument
- You negotiated with the party that you sat down at closing with
- They accepted the instrument by negotiation
- They were a federal reserved depository institution that could accept article three instruments by deposit
- They gave you consideration in the form of cash, not Ultra Vires, for your promise to pay instrument executing an underlying indebtedness contract
Well in an IRC 1031 Like Kind Exchange, Table Funded Securitized Mortgage Loan Transaction that didn't happen. That did not happen; that negotiation, acceptance and consideration is not what a table funded securitization transaction is!
So the money is not created from your signature, negotiated and then the note negotiated between state to state physically, that doesn’t happen in a table funded transaction. Rather it's in direct reverse engineer - the money was created from the sale of the certificates and the special deposit, special purpose vehicle on Wall Street.
They take the certificate holders funds to the securities to special deposit the pool of assets. That pool of assets is used in the SPV alternative investment opportunity through the warehouse line of credit, and that's what the sponsor bank is using as the table funding credit in the transaction itself.
So yes, we would have some arguments like robo-signing and the improper negotiation, transfer, and delivery of the mortgage loan contract all the way through the securitization scheme, as part of the material defects found in the transactional scheme itself - but what we don't want to do is provide any language as an admission to you being the account debtor.
You also want to make sure you understand what is meant by using terms like the “alleged debt”, because you're going to piss the Judge off, really badly; a lot of people do it. Because, they don't know how to speak to the transaction as it relates to what that means.
So let me give you the perspective that the Judge is going to have. The Judge is only looking at the intent of the contract. So all the little details, the semantics of this right now, the first thing the Judge is going to do, is look at it from a cursory equity standpoint.
Q: Did you intend to get a home
Q: Are you in a home?
Q: Okay, so you're in the collateral.
Q: Okay and did you intend whenever you went to go get the home to get an obligation or a loan associated to that.
Okay, yes that's obvious or else you wouldn't be in the collateral
Q: Okay so you're in the collateral - an obligation exists - and you also pledged a lien to encumber your property to secure that obligation, so that if you couldn't perform on the contractual payment obligation the holder of the obligation would have the lien to enforce, do a foreclosure sale to enforce an ultimate means of collection.
Okay. So just looking at the intent of the contract, you are in the collateral, you know that you signed something at the closing- there's an obligation – and it's in default.
The institutions claiming to be the holder of that obligation and to be the secured party of record via an assignment of the security instrument perfected in public record.
Are there any other parties that are involved in this transaction?
And if some other financial institution was holding an obligation and saw that deed of trust or signed with a deed of trust recorded on public record, they would immediately file to acquire the title and they would be there defending their right to the obligation and the collateral itself.
So because there's no other financial institution showing up claiming to be the holder and to having a subsequent assignment of deed of trust or mortgage recorded for enforcing through a foreclosure action - than nine times out of ten - the Judge is going to give the party holding the obligation the benefit of the doubt as a matter of the intent of the contract.
So, in terms of the intent of the contract, this is where it becomes so viable for you to understand, what your capacity into the transaction is.
When the judge ask you:
“Did you sign the note - in the effort to get the collateral?”
Your answer is “Yes.” - But you need to be able to specify the answer to yes as “well yes your honour but I’m not the account debtor. I signed into this transaction as an accommodation party or guarantor. The party that I signed as a guarantor for, made available the obligation through a securitization transaction without my knowledge and purportedly negotiated the security evidence by the deed of trust/mortgage lien that I pledged to them, uniquely, to secure these receivables in this transaction as well.
What I need to know your honour is does my lien secure the tangible contractual obligation or does it secure the receivables?”
The answer to the receivables is no. You cannot attach article 9 to the UCC receivables (securities) to enforce a lien on real property. A lien on real property under revised article nine is not secured by a lien on real property, so article nine does not fit the common law argument that the transfer of an obligation carries the beneficial interest of the lien and the lien itself.
Here is the lie that the banks almost always defeat homeowners with.
"Here's a copy of the note your honour, the security follows the obligation we all know that."
Yes, that’s accurate, under common law and U.S. Supreme Court. Carpenter v. Longan (1872) the note and mortgage are inseparable; the former as essential, the latter as an incident. An assignment of the note carries the mortgage with it, while an assignment of the latter alone is a nullity.
Furthermore under revised article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) the banks do not necessarily have to record each transfer of the mortgage loan contract in public records; all they have to do is, in essence, be in possession of the note and they can claim rights to enforce it.
Therefore you need to be able to be able to explain (and prove) how your capacity is to the obligation. “Your honour I am not the account debtor. I was a guarantor to this party. I am not a guarantor to everybody else that claims to be the holder of the obligation"
And it’s their capacity of an accommodated party to the certificate holders on Wall Street. They're not the real creditors. Their job is to put the certificate holders into funds associated to your payment string.
All of this is predicated on laying the proper order of operations, in line with statutory capacities, that clearly part and parcel and separate the root question of: Does revised article nine and liens on real property secured defaulted receivables in a securitization transaction?
That's your root question.
You just have to be able to have it all put in the proper sequence in statutory capacities, as it relates to your state, and what took place in order to defend the lien itself the property.
How have you been harmed?
In pre-foreclosure it's not so much that you've actually been harmed, it's whether or not they have clean hands in the transaction. So this, at its root is an Equitable Estoppel issue. In the like kind exchange transactional scheme there is a senior secured party and a junior secured party – the originator of the loan (named on the note as the lender) is the senior secured party, and the trustee for the REMIC trust is the junior secured party.
But it's one transactional scheme, its one organism, so you have to be able to show that they - in the race of diligence - that the junior secured party made sure that the originator recorded that underlying security of trust, so they could perform the rest of the transaction. But ten years later upon default of the receivables, to cause an assignment of the beneficial interest of evidence about your underlying security instrument, that security instrument doesn't maintain perfection from now, until infinity. You can lose perfection over that lien.
So, having the proper capacity, order of operations, and then statement of facts of how they lost perfection, and to show that it is inequitable for the holder of the receivables to attempt to cause an assignment of the underlying security instrument, because they were only negotiated the receivables, with unclean hands. That’s what you have to show that they don't have an equitable claim to.
Hypothecation is a third party pledging collateral on your behalf. So, let's say for instance, if you pledged the real property to the originator party on the ten thirty one exchange transaction scheme you specifically gave legal title to that party. Not to the trustee under that instrument, and the beneficiary of the security instrument. The beneficiary of the security instrument then in turn pledged a separate and subsequent value - which is the proceeds of the real property.
Let me give you an example. Consider a wheat field. The land is the real property, but the Wheat and the Harvest are the proceeds of the real property.
In this securitization transaction the original secured party is granting the proceeds, the actual required collateral to the real property and hypothecating that proceed as the payment intangible, which is the transferable record on the obligation.
So, you have to be able to show that it's under revised article nine; it does not apply to liens on real property. It may apply to title loans, student loans, and unsecured obligations, but it does not apply to liens on real property.
Remember, it's either you sold the contract in its entirety to a successor and interest through a true sale; or you sold the underlying tangible value of the contract.
Remember when people paid off their loans and they received their notes and their deed back, and they would have deed burning parties?
That doesn't happen anymore because that transactional scheme where that was your note, that you made and negotiated with a bank that could accept it, deposit it, and give you real money for a loan so you could purchase the property. That’s the savings and loan model.
In that transaction the bank you contracted with actually risked giving you real money, and was going to hold that thirty year instrument until its full rate of return. Its portfolio division wanted to buy that obligation and they underwrote you as your credit worthiness and they gave you the loan. You had skin in the game, you qualified financially and they were willing to take a risk on you. That was a real contract between you and the bank.
But what happened with the securitization bubble is they lifted the Glass–Steagall Act and the Gramm Bliley Leach Act and they made way for this transactional scheme were they could divert the risk of creating the money, which was done by lying and cheating the certificate holders through a perspective supplement which was pre-fabricated on the yield spread of those securities, under the nineteen thirty three, thirty four Security and Exchange act.
So they went to Standards & Poor’s and they got all those credit enhancements and they pre-sold those securities. Well that’s what the special deposit is for the REMIC trust, the trust vehicle; the special purpose vehicle. So, through special deposit, they generated those funds with the sale of the securities, that’s what makes the credit swaps available for the sponsor bank, to work with the originator to the table fund transaction.
Once you’re able to understand the blue print of the transaction and then you set the order of operations in place, and then you couch the interested parties, and then couch their capacity, and then what are they negotiating and what’s its statutory intangible interest, and what governs that, and once you set the mouse trap in place, and it can follow the order of operation it’s not that complicated.
To get to the root question you just have to be able to see all of that and to be able to understand the root question.
The root question is “in what capacity did you sign the note (as maker/issuer) or as an (accommodation party/guarantor)?
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